A look at lucent technologies bell labs innovations

Fig-2 First American patent, July 31, Fig. X, July 31,was awarded to Samuel Hopkins for a process for making potash, an ingredient in fertilizer. Signed by President George Washington.

A look at lucent technologies bell labs innovations

Although VMI trademarked the term, it eventually became a generic term used for referring to virtually all automated voice services employing a telephone.

Voicemail popularity continues today with Internet telephone services such as Skype, Google Voice and ATT that integrate voice, voicemail and A look at lucent technologies bell labs innovations services for tablets and smartphones Voicemail systems were developed in the late s by Voice Message Exchange VMX.

They became popular in the early s when they were made available on PC-based boards. The report said that the number of voicemail messages declined 8 percent compared to To do so they contain a user interface to select, play, and manage messages; a delivery method to either play or otherwise deliver the message; and a notification ability to inform the user of a waiting message.

Most systems use phone networks, either cellular- or landline-based, as the conduit for all of these functions.

Some systems may use multiple telecommunications methods, permitting recipients and callers to retrieve or leave messages through multiple methods such as PCs, PDA, Cellphones or Smartphones. Simple voicemail systems function as a remote answering machine using touch-tones as the user interface.

More complicated systems may use other input devices such as voice or a computer interface. Simpler voice-mail systems may play the audio message through the phone, while more advanced systems may have alternative delivery methods, including email or text message delivery, message transfer and forwarding options, and multiple mailboxes.

Almost all modern voicemail systems use digital storage and are typically stored on computer data storage. Notification methods also vary based on the voice-mail system. Simple systems may not provide active notification at all, instead requiring the recipient to check with the system, while others may provide an indication that messages are waiting.

Interactive Voice Response IVR systems may use digital information stored in a corporate data base to select pre-recorded words and phrases stored in a voice-mail vocabulary to form sentences that are delivered to the caller.

Message centers[ edit ] The conventional solution to efficient handling of telephone communication in businesses was the " message center. Extensions that were busy or rang "no answer" would forward to the message center using a device called a "call director". The call director had a button for each extension in the company which would flash when that person's extension forwarded to the message center.

A look at lucent technologies bell labs innovations

A little label next to the button told the operator the person being called. While it was an improvement over basic multi-line systems, the message center had many disadvantages.

Many calls would come in simultaneously at peak periods, such as lunch time, and operators were often busy. This left message attendants with little time to take each message accurately. Often, they were not familiar with employees' names and "buzzwords" and how to spell or pronounce them. Messages were scribbled on pink slips and distributed by the internal mail system and messages, often arrived at people's desks after lengthy delays, contained little content other than the caller's name and number, and were often inaccurate, with misspelled names and wrong phone numbers.

Tape-based telephone answering machines had come into the residential telephone market, but they weren't used much in the corporate environment due to physical limitations of the technology.

One answering machine was needed for each telephone; messages couldn't be recorded if the user was using the phone; messages had to be retrieved in sequential order; and messages couldn't be retrieved remotely, selectively discarded, saved, or forwarded to others.

Further, the manufacturers of PBXs private branch exchanges —the name for corporate phone systems used proprietary digital phone sets in order to increase the functionality and value of the PBX.

These phone sets were, by design, incompatible with answering machines. In the s and early s, the cost of long distance calling decreased and more business communications were conducted by telephone.

As corporations grew and labor rates increased, the ratio of secretaries to employees decreased. With more communication by phone, multiple time zones, and fewer secretaries, real-time phone communications were hampered by callers being unable to reach people.

Some early studies showed that only 1 in 4 phone calls resulted in a completed call and half the calls were one-way in nature that is, they did not require a conversation.

This happened because people were either not at work due to time zone differences, being away on business, etc. This bottleneck hindered the effectiveness of business activities and decreased both individual and group productivity.

It also wasted the caller's time and created delays in resolving time-critical issues. Invention[ edit ] The first public records describing voice recording were reported in a New York newspaper and the Scientific American in November Edison had announced the invention of his "phonograph" saying "the object was to record telephone messages and transmit them again by telephone.

In an article outlining his own ideas of the future usefulness of his machine Edison's list began with "Letter writing, and all kinds of dictation without the aid of a stenographer.Biographies (Bios are in Alphabetical Order; Click Picture to Enlarge) Barry Abrams Barry Abrams in Saigon, at left, with his good friend, John Mikesch; then Barry in later life in Paris.

See the Site Timeline for a chart of Multics sites by date. For a list of significant Multics dates, see the Multics Chronology.

A ACM talk by John Gintell on Multics history is available on. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.

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Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential .

Introduction. Please note that most of these Brand Names are registered Trade Marks, Company Names or otherwise controlled and their inclusion in this index is strictly for information purposes only.

A look at lucent technologies bell labs innovations
Electrical, Electronic and Cybernetic Brand Name Index