Anglo-Saxon fortifications[ edit ] The English word " castle " derives from the Latin word castellum and is used to refer to the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. The presence of castles in Britain and Ireland dates primarily from the Norman invasion of The first of these was the establishment, by the new king, of a number of royal castles in key strategic locations. In a few key locations the king gave his followers compact groups of estates including the six rapes of Sussex and the three earldoms of ChesterShrewsbury and Hereford ; intended to protect the line of communication with Normandy and the Welsh border respectively.
Visual arts In order to answer whether there is an aestheticiconographic, or stylistic unity to the visually perceptible arts of Islamic peoples, it is first essential to realize that no ethnic or geographical entity was Muslim from the beginning.
There is no Islamic art, therefore, in the way there is a Chinese art or a French art. Nor is it simply a period art, like Gothic art or Baroque art, for once a land or an ethnic entity became Muslim, it remained Muslim, a small number of exceptions such as Spain or Sicily notwithstanding.
Political and social events transformed a number of lands with a variety of earlier histories into Muslim lands. But because early Islam as such did not possess or propagate an art of its own, each area could continue, in fact often did continue, whatever modes of creativity it had acquired.
It may then not be appropriate at all to talk about the visual arts of Islamic peoples, and one should instead consider separately each of the areas that became Muslim: Such, in fact, has been the direction taken by some scholarship. Even though tainted at times with parochial nationalismthat approach has been useful in that it has focused attention on a number of permanent features in different regions of Islamic lands that are older than and independent from the faith itself and from the political entity created by it.
Iranian artin particular, exhibits a number of features certain themes such as the representation of birds or an epic tradition in painting that owe little to its Islamic character since the 7th century. Ottoman art shares a Mediterranean tradition of architectural conception with Italy rather than with the rest of the Muslim world.
Such examples can easily be multiplied, but it is probably wrong to overstate their importance. For if one looks at the art of Islamic lands from a different perspective, a totally different picture emerges.
The perspective is that of the lands that surround the Muslim world or of the times that preceded its formation. For even if there are ambiguous examples, most observers can recognize a flavour, a mood in Islamic visual arts that is distinguishable from what is known in East Asia China, Korea, and Japan or in the Christian West.
This mood or flavour has been called decorative, for it seems at first glance to emphasize an immense complexity of surface effects without apparent meanings attached to the visible motifs.
But it has other characteristics as well: The problem is whether these uniquenesses of Islamic art, when compared with other artistic traditions, are the result of the nature of Islam or of some other factor or series of factors. These preliminary remarks suggest at the very outset the main epistemological peculiarity of Islamic art: The key question is how this was possible, but no answer can be given before the tradition itself has been properly defined.
Such a definition can be provided only in history, through an examination of the formation and development of the arts through the centuries, for a static sudden phenomenon is not being dealt with, but rather a slow building up of a visual language of forms with many dialects and with many changes.
Whether these complexities of growth and development subsumed a common structure is the challenging question facing the historian of this artistic tradition. What makes the question particularly difficult to answer is that the study of Islamic art is still so new.
Many monuments are unpublished or at least insufficiently known, and only a handful of scientific excavations have investigated the physical setting of the culture and of its art. Much, therefore, remains tentative in the knowledge and appreciation of works of Islamic art, and what follows is primarily an outline of what is known, with a number of suggestions for further work into insufficiently investigated areas.
Each artistic tradition has tended to develop its own favourite mediums and techniques.Chocolate truffles Chocolate is a "New World" food originating in South America. It was first consumed in liquid form by the Ancient Mayans and Aztecs.
Spanish explorers introduced chocolate to Europe, where it was likewise appreciated and esteemed.
Learn about the history of the Middle Ages Castles. Middle Ages Castles: Defence features were added to concentric castles design including the Drawbridge, Barbican, Portcullis, Gatehouse, Moat, Crenellations and Murder Holes.
Successfully defending a castle during the Middle Ages depended on whether the castle and its inhabitants could. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
During the Middle Ages much of Europe was divided up between lords and princes. They would rule the local land and all the people who lived there. In order to defend themselves, they built their homes as large castles in the center of the land they ruled. The first castles, built in the Early Middle Ages (early Medieval period), were ‘earthworks’ – mounds of earth primarily built for defence, as enemies struggled to climb them.
During the s, the Normans developed these into Motte and Bailey castle designs. The Science Three-Level Hypothesized Explanation of the IM effect (McGrew, ).
Interactive Metronome ® (IM) is believed to improve the resolution and efficiency of an individual’s internal brain clock(s) and temporal schwenkreis.com turn, it is hypothesized that this results in more efficient brain connectivity, communication, and synchronization via increased integrity of the brains white.