What are the benefits of knowing about life in Mars March 12, at 7: Also it will give us the opportunity to create a colony on Mars to study this life, giving us the opportunity to learn more on how life can be formed on certain planets and the possibility of life on certain planets similar to Mars.
Mineralogy As a discipline, mineralogy has had close historical ties with geology. Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology.
The problems and techniques of mineralogy, however, are distinct in many respects from those of the rest of geology, with the result that mineralogy has grown to be a large, complex discipline in itself.
Nepheline greasy light graysodalite bluecancrinite yellowfeldspar whiteand ferromagnesian minerals black in an alkalic syenite from Litchfield, Maine, U. About 3, distinct mineral species are recognized, but relatively few are important in the kinds of rocks that are abundant in the outer part of the Earth.
Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives. Limestoneswhich are widely distributed on all continents, consist largely of only two minerals, calcite and dolomite.
Many rocks have a more complex mineralogy, and in some the mineral particles are so minute that they can be identified only through specialized techniques.
It is possible to identify an individual mineral in a specimen by examining and testing its physical properties. Determining the hardness of a mineral is the most practical way of identifying it.
This can be done by using the Mohs scale of hardness, which lists 10 common minerals in their relative order of hardness: Harder minerals scratch softer ones, so that an unknown mineral can be readily positioned between minerals on the scale.
Certain common objects that have been assigned hardness values roughly corresponding to those of the Mohs scale e. Other physical properties of minerals that aid in identification are crystal form, cleavage type, fracture, streak, lustre, colour, specific gravityand density.
In addition, the refractive index of a mineral can be determined with precisely calibrated immersion oils. Some minerals have distinctive properties that help to identify them.
For example, carbonate minerals effervesce with dilute acids; halite is soluble in water and has a salty taste; fluorite and about other minerals fluoresces in ultraviolet light; and uranium-bearing minerals are radioactive.
The science of crystallography is concerned with the geometric properties and internal structure of crystals. Because minerals are generally crystalline, crystallography is an essential aspect of mineralogy. Investigators in the field may use a reflecting goniometer that measures angles between crystal faces to help determine the crystal system to which a mineral belongs.
Another instrument that they frequently employ is the X-ray diffractometer, which makes use of the fact that X-rays, when passing through a mineral specimen, are diffracted at regular angles.
The paths of the diffracted rays are recorded on photographic film, and the positions and intensities of the resulting diffraction lines on the film provide a particular pattern. Every mineral has its own unique diffraction pattern, so crystallographers are able to determine not only the crystal structure of a mineral but the type of mineral as well.
When a complex substance such as a magma crystallizes to form igneous rockthe grains of different constituent minerals grow together and mutually interfere, with the result that they do not retain their externally recognizable crystal form.
To study the minerals in such a rock, the mineralogist uses a petrographic microscope constructed for viewing thin sections of the rock, which are ground uniformly to a thickness of about 0.
If the rock is crystalline, its essential minerals can be determined by their peculiar optical properties as revealed in transmitted light under magnification, provided that the individual crystal grains can be distinguished.
Opaque minerals, such as those with a high content of metallic elements, require a technique employing reflected light from polished surfaces. This kind of microscopic analysis has particular application to metallic ore minerals.
The polarizing microscope, however, has a lower limit to the size of grains that can be distinguished with the eye; even the best microscopes cannot resolve grains less than about 0.
For higher magnifications the mineralogist uses an electron microscopewhich produces images with diameters enlarged tens of thousands of times. The methods described above are based on a study of the physical properties of minerals.
Another important area of mineralogy is concerned with the chemical composition of minerals.In a recent article from SHAPE magazine, the top six reasons — beyond water being the basis of life — are given, according to Yahoo Shine. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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Life cycle assessment and sustainability analysis of products, materials and technologies. Toward a scientific framework for sustainability life cycle analysis. Water is the transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms, and that is vital for all known forms of life, even though it provides no calories or organic schwenkreis.com chemical formula is H 2 O, meaning that each of its .
Here are 10 points on importance of water. Water is an essential commodity for the existence of life on earth. It useful for daily activities of humans, animals & also plants.
You will understand the urgent need to save water. You can also use to make an essay on water.