Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri mercenary leaderswho changed sides without warning, and the rise and fall of many short-lived governments. It is thought that he did not learn Greek even though Florence was at the time one of the centers of Greek scholarship in Europe.
Antiquity[ edit ] Plato left and Aristotle right from a detail of The School of Athensa fresco by Raphaelwhose works Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers As an academic discipline, Western political philosophy has its origins in ancient Greek society, when city-states were experimenting with various forms of political organization including monarchytyrannyaristocracyoligarchyand democracy.
One of the first, extremely important classical works of political philosophy is Plato's Republicwhich was followed by Aristotle's Politicsboth created in the context of Athenian democracy. Roman political philosophy was influenced by Greek schools of thought, particularly Stoicismin conjunction with the Roman tradition of republicanismas evidenced by the political philosophy of the Roman statesman Cicero and later thinkers such as Marcus Aurelius.
Independently, ConfuciusMenciusMozi and the Legalist school in China, and the Laws of Manu and Chanakya in India, all sought to find means of restoring political unity and political stability ; in the case of the former three through the cultivation of virtuein the last by imposition of discipline.
Ancient Chinese and Indian civilizations resembled Greek civilization in that there was a unified culture divided into rival states. In the case of China, philosophers found themselves obliged to confront social and political breakdown, and seek solutions to the crisis that confronted their entire civilization.
The early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was by and large a rewrite of Plato in a Christian context. The main change that Christian thought brought was to moderate the Stoicism and theory of justice of the Roman world, and emphasize the role of the state in applying mercy as a moral example.
Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God Civitas Dei or the City of Man Civitas Terrena. Augustine's City of God is an influential work of this period that refuted the thesis, after the First Sack of Romethat the Christian view could be realized on Earth at all — a view many Christian Romans held.
Europe[ edit ] Medieval political philosophy in Europe was heavily influenced by Christian thinking. It had much in common with the Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics also subordinated philosophy to theology.
Perhaps the most influential political philosopher of medieval Europe was St. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle 's works, which had only been preserved by the Muslimsalong with the commentaries of Averroes.
Aquinas's use of them set the agenda for scholastic political philosophy, dominated European thought for centuries. Political aspects of Islam The rise of Islambased on both the Qur'an and Muhammadstrongly altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region.
Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religionand the process of ijtihad to find truth - in effect all philosophy was " political " as it had real implications for governance.
This view was challenged by the Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more Greek view and were supported by secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate. By the late medieval period, however, the Asharite view of Islam had in general triumphed.
Islamic political philosophywas, indeed, rooted in the very sources of Islami. However, in the Western thought, it is generally supposed that it was a specific area peculiar merely to the great philosophers of Islam: The political conceptions of Islam such as kudrah, sultan, ummah, simaa -and even the "core" terms of the Qur'an, i.
Hence, not only the ideas of the Muslim political philosophers but also many other jurists and ulama posed political ideas and theories. For example, the ideas of the Khawarij in the very early years of Islamic history on Khilafa and Ummahor that of Shia Islam on the concept of Imamah are considered proofs of political thought.
The clashes between the Ehl-i Sunna and Shia in the 7th and 8th centuries had a genuine political character. The 14th century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun is considered one of the greatest political theorists. The British philosopher-anthropologist Ernest Gellner considered Ibn Khaldun's definition of government"an institution which prevents injustice other than such as it commits itself", the best in the history of political theory.Both a history and an examination of human thought and behavior spanning three thousand years, On Politics thrillingly traces the origins of political philosophy from the ancient Greeks to Machiavelli in Book I and from Hobbes to the present age in Book II.
Whether examining Lord Acton’s dictum that “absolute power corrupts absolutely” or /5(38). Political philosophy: Political philosophy, branch of philosophy that is concerned, at the most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion.
The meaning of the term political is itself one of the major problems of political philosophy. Broadly, however, one may characterize as political. Therefore, it appears that in Plato as well as in Machiavelli and Locke, the power of sheer numbers is secondary to the chief role of the people; namely, that of umpire and as judges of the behavior and actions of the ruler.
Political science is a social science concerned with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour.
(c. BC) was a political thinker in Takshashila. He wrote the Arthashastra, a treatise on political thought, economics and social order, which can be considered a. This reality, then, that gives their truth to the objects of knowledge and the power of knowing to the knower, you must say is the idea of the good, and you must conceive it as being the cause of knowledge  and of truth  in so far as known..
Plato, Republic, e, Republic II, translated by Paul Shorey, Loeb Classical Library, Harvard University Press, , , pp, color added. One of the most influential works during this burgeoning period was Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince, written between –12 and published in , after Machiavelli's death.
That work, as well as The Discourses, a rigorous analysis of the classical period, did much to influence modern political thought in the West.