The Smithsonian Musum of Natural History considers these feathered baskets "prehistoric" which might mean the 19th century. The smoothly polished deer antler awl was used to make them. Brief History "Among our people, both men and women were basketmakers. Everything in our lifestyle was connected to those baskets.
The seven are often differentiated by placing a direction before the word Pomo: Two of these seven groups had a name for themselves as a whole and thus can be referred to by adaptations of their self-designations: The others had names for their politically separate village communities but not for the language groups as a whole.
The name "Pomo" arises from a blend of two terms in the Northern Pomo language: The seventh group, the Salt Pomo, lived in a small detached area on the east side of the Inner Coast Range, about twenty miles to the northeast of the main body. The climate is of the Mediterranean type, with rainy winters and dry summers.
Along the coast, the summers are foggy and cool, ideal for the redwood forests. In the interior, the summers are very hot and dry. The aboriginal population of all the Pomo has been variously estimated at from eight thousand to twenty-one thousand.
The numbers were not evenly distributed among the seven linguistic groups: The Eastern were about 10 percent, the Central Pomo about 15 percent, and the Southern and Northern about 30 percent each.
The more numerous linguistic groups were divided into a larger number of politically independent village communities. In the devastation of the nineteenth century, over 90 percent of the population was lost, down to a nadir of about eight hundred.
The population recovered somewhat, to twelve hundred by and has increased steadily since. Later censuses are quite inadequate, as they count only residents of current reservations and omit the great majority of the Pomo who live either on land whose Reserved status has been terminated or at other sites.
The seven languages of the Pomoan family are quite distinct; at the maximum divergence they are more different from each other than are English and German.
At a deeper time depth the Pomoan family is postulated to have been related to other Indian languages, scattered from northern California southward into Mexico, in the Hokan linguistic stock.
The diversity of Languages in a compact area suggests that the Pomo have lived somewhere in their present territory, developing their unique speech forms, for a very long time, on the order of fifteen hundred years.
The Salt Pomo have a legend of migrating from a place next to other Pomo across the Inner Coast Range to their present location in recent prehistoric times. If this is so, they must have already possessed a distinct language, as its divergence from the other Pomoan languages is so great as normally to have taken a millennium or so.
The destruction of the Pomo began with the founding of the San Rafael Mission in and the Sonoma Mission inwith the Southern Pomo the first to be severely affected. In the Russian River and Clear Lake regions, Mexican land grants, rapid settlement, and conversion of the land to grazing and farming deprived the Indians of their former livelihood.
Inan epidemic, possibly cholera, took many; inmany more died of smallpox.
From tothousands died from these causes and from Mexican military campaigns. Survivors were pressed into forced labor, both locally and, later, in distant gold mines. Especially infamous was the slaughter of an innocent fishing party at a place known since as Bloody Island. In the next few years, the surviving Pomo were rounded up and forced onto the Mendocino Indian Reserve and the Round Valley Reservation considerably north of Porno territory and mixed with non-Pomo groups.
Some escaped to return to their ancestral homes, and the Mendocino Reserve was disbanded. These Indians could not renew their earlier life and became agricultural workers.
The Kashaya have a unique history among the Pomo. Because of their relative freedom from forced removal to missions and reservations and their isolation from the regions of densest settlement, they are now the culturally best preserved of the Pomo groups, with more speakers of their language perhaps sixty than all the rest of the Pomo combined.
Settlements The Pomo groups lived in three ecological regions: Each region had hinterland mountainous areas used for hunting and gathering plant food. The Kashaya lived in the coast-redwood region, and the Southern, Central, and Northern Pomo, in the succession of valleys along the Russian River drainage, with territorial Extensions to the coast.
The Eastern Pomo lived on easterly and northerly shores of Clear Lake. The Southeastern Pomo lived on three islands in the southeastern part of Clear Lake, with ownership and use of adjacent mainland.
One Northern Pomo community had an extension to a portion of the Northwestern shore of the lake. There were about seventy-five tribelets and several hundred named former settlement sites, not all occupied at one time. The village sizes varied from hamlets of fifty to major centers of over five hundred.
In the middle of the twentieth century there were twenty-one small reservations, some bought by the government and others by Pomo groups for themselves.The professional paper editor will write essays and proofread them.
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Pomo Indian Baskets, All Native American Indian Baskets for sale. Buying all Indian baskets wanted. Antique Basketry Appraisals, antique photographs, stereoscopic views.
"Pomo baskets have the name according to many of being the finest in the schwenkreis.comtly basket manufacture is no mere utilitarian routine to them, in which they have settled into mechanical habits like other tribes, but an art, the mastery of which is a stimulus and whose possibilities are played with.
The Pomo Culture and their Baskets Pomo, Greg Sarris- “[B]askets have stories, songs and genealogies. They have helped us on our travels and told us who we are as a people.
A brief history is given here to provide historical context for the fine baskets and basketmakers in the rest of this Native American basketry art section. On their way home, the troops continued their bloody actions, massacring every Indian group they encountered -- mostly Pomo groups.
the Brooklyn Museum, The New Press, . Native American Baskets and Handmade Items. Collection by Laura Norris. Follow.
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