History[ edit ] According to Oxford Dictionariesthe term post-truth was first used in a essay by the late Serbian-American playwright Steve Tesich in The Nation. Tesich writes that following the shameful truth of Watergatemore assuaging coverage of the Iran—Contra scandal  and Persian Gulf War demonstrate that "we, as a free people, have freely decided that we want to live in some post-truth world. Jayne Professor of Government at Harvard Universityhas described the rise of post-truth as a return to 18th and 19th century political and media practices in the United States, following a period in the 20th century where the media was relatively balanced and rhetoric was toned down. Anyone who listens to the radio in a mixed company of thinking people knows how deep-seated is this cynicism.
How did we end up here? And how do we fix it? Twenty-five years after the first website went online, it is clear that we are living through a period of dizzying transition.
For years after Gutenberg, the dominant form of information was the printed page: Now, we are caught in a series of confusing battles between opposing forces: What is common to these struggles — and what makes their resolution an urgent matter — is that they all involve the diminishing status of truth.
This does not mean that there are no truths. It simply means, as this year has made very clear, that we cannot agree on what those truths are, and when there is no consensus about the truth and no way to achieve it, chaos soon follows.
A dubious story about Cameron and a pig appears in a tabloid one morning, and by noon, it has flown around the world on social media and turned up in trusted news sources everywhere. This may seem like a small matter, but its consequences are enormous.
There are usually several conflicting truths on any given subject, but in the era of the printing press, words on a page nailed things down, whether they turned out to be true or not. The information felt like the truth, at least until the next day brought another update or a correction, and we all shared a common set of facts.
This arrangement was not without flaws: Now, people distrust much of what is presented as fact — particularly if the facts in question are uncomfortable, or out of sync with their own views — and while some of that distrust is misplaced, some of it is not. In the digital age, it is easier than ever to publish false information, which is quickly shared and taken to be true — as we often see in emergency situations, when news is breaking in real time.
Trusted news organisations are needed to debunk such tall tales.
Sometimes rumours like these spread out of panic, sometimes out of malice, and sometimes deliberate manipulation, in which a corporation or regime pays people to convey their message. But in less than five years, thanks to the incredible power of a few social platforms, the filter bubble that Pariser described has become much more extreme.
On the day after the EU referendum, in a Facebook post, the British internet activist and mySociety founder, Tom Steinberg, provided a vivid illustration of the power of the filter bubble — and the serious civic consequences for a world where information flows largely through social networks: Facebook, which launched only innow has 1.
It has become the dominant way for people to find news on the internet — and in fact it is dominant in ways that would have been impossible to imagine in the newspaper era.
As Emily Bell has written: It has swallowed political campaigns, banking systems, personal histories, the leisure industry, retail, even government and security.
The old idea of a wide-open web — where hyperlinks from site to site created a non-hierarchical and decentralised network of information — has been largely supplanted by platforms designed to maximise your time within their walls, some of which such as Instagram and Snapchat do not allow outward links at all.
Many people, in fact, especially teenagers, now spend more and more of their time on closed chat appswhich allow users to create groups to share messages privately — perhaps because young people, who are most likely to have faced harassment online, are seeking more carefully protected social spaces.
But the closed space of a chat app is an even more restrictive silo than the walled garden of Facebook or other social networks.The Ugly Truth: An Examination of Stereotypes in Media Essay examples Words | 8 Pages The Ugly Truth, a film which was released in , displays many particular stereotypes and gender issues which we find within American society.
This was the first major vote in the era of post-truth politics: the listless remain campaign attempted to fight fantasy with facts, but quickly found that the currency of fact had been badly debased.
The importance of a free press discusses the phone-hacking scandal at a Guardian media event last month. Photograph: Teri Pengilley He used the phrase "the best obtainable version of truth.
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