Input hypothesis The input hypothesis, also known as the monitor model, is a group of five hypotheses of second-language acquisition developed by the linguist Stephen Krashen in the s and s. Krashen originally formulated the input hypothesis as just one of the five hypotheses, but over time the term has come to refer to the five hypotheses as a group. The hypotheses are the input hypothesis, the acquisition—learning hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the natural order hypothesis and the affective filter hypothesis.
According to Krashen there are two independent systems of second language performance: It requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act.
The Monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function is the practical result of the learned grammar. It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance.
Usually extroverts are under-users, while introverts and perfectionists are over-users. Lack of self-confidence is frequently related to the over-use of the "monitor".
For a given language, some grammatical structures tend to be acquired early while others late. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies.
In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition. Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self-confidence, a good self-image, and a low level of anxiety are better equipped for success in second language acquisition.
On the other hand, positive affect is necessary, but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place. It should be clear, however, that examining irregularity, formulating rules and teaching complex facts about the target language is not language teaching, but rather is "language appreciation" or linguistics.
The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can result in language acquisition and proficiency is when the students are interested in the subject and the target language is used as a medium of instruction.
Very often, when this occurs, both teachers and students are convinced that the study of formal grammar is essential for second language acquisition, and the teacher is skillful enough to present explanations in the target language so that the students understand. In other words, the teacher talk meets the requirements for comprehensible input and perhaps with the students" participation the classroom becomes an environment suitable for acquisition.
Also, the filter is low in regard to the language of explanation, as the students" conscious efforts are usually on the subject matter, on what is being talked about, and not the medium.
This is a subtle point. In effect, both teachers and students are deceiving themselves. They believe that it is the subject matter itself, the study of grammar, that is responsible for the students" progress, but in reality their progress is coming from the medium and not the message.
Any subject matter that held their interest would do just as well. Cambridge University Press, Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition.Description of Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition.
Krashen's theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses: the Acquisition-Learning hypothesis; the Monitor hypothesis; the Natural Order hypothesis; the Input hypothesis; and the Affective Filter hypothesis.
debate in the United States. Whole language instruction was predicated on the principle that children could learn to read given (a) proper motivation, (b) access to good literature, (c) many reading opportunities, (d) focus on meaning, and (e) instruction to help students use meaning clues to determine the pronunciation of unknown words.
literature-based instruction in the esl classroom 6 cognitive theory of language suggests that language acquisition is a cognitive activity resulting from an innate propensity for language acquisition.
d) input hypothesis- states that, in order to develop L2 skills, we cannot merely hear the same words over and over in the target language, but that instead the i +1 format should be used.
What. Nov 10, · • Exposure to comprehensible input is a significant factor in acquisition.
Krashen claims that if the input contains forms and structures above the learner’s existing level of language competence, it is bound to initiate of comprehension and acquisition.
The following chapters will examine the concepts behind learning and memory, from the approach of cognitive psychology. is the last assumption that is based on the cognitive theory of multimedia learning.
It states that the human mind processes Sensory memory is a system that holds environment input in sensory registers so that.