It might be one of the toxic sensitizer and irritant on the skin, and initiator of lung diseases, so it is important to understand the characterization and toxic mechanism of MI in the body. In the pharmacokinetic study using rats, presented analysis method was useful for detecting the profile of MI in the plasma.
Early Environmental Legislation India employs a range of regulatory instruments to preserve and protect its natural resources.
It was the first country to insert an amendment into its Constitution allowing the State to protect and improve the environment for safeguarding public health, forests and wild life. A Survey of the early environmental legislations indicate the nature and levels of Governmental awareness towards environmental issues.
The Shore Nuisance Bombay and Kolaba Act ofwas one of the earliest laws concerning water pollution, authorized the collector of land revenue in Bombay to order removal of any nuisance below the high - water mark in Bombay harbors. The Indian Penal Code, passed inpenalizes person s responsible for causing defilement of water of a public spring or reservoir with imprisonment or fines.
In addition, the code also penalized negligent Acts with poisonous substances that endangered life or caused injury.
The Indian Fisheries Act of penalized the killing of fish by poisoning water and by using explosives. The Indian Forest Act was a product of British rule in The legislation granted the Government uncontested rights over natural resources, with State Governments authorized to grant licenses to lumber contrActors and oversee protection of the forests.
Legislative provisions regulating the discharge of oil into port waters and prohibiting the poisoning of water in forests were also enacted prior to independence. Two early post-independence laws touched on water pollution. Section 12 of the Factories Act of required all factories to make effective arrangements for waste disposal and empowered State Governments to frame rules implementing this directive.
Each tailored the Act to suit its particular situation. In Tamil Nadu, the ruling entity with similar responsibilities was the Director of Fisheries. In Maharashtra, local authorities were granted with jurisdiction in such matters. Second, river Boards, established under the River Boards Act of for the regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river valleys, were empowered to prevent water pollution.
In both these laws, prevention of water pollution was only incidental to the principal objective of the enactment. During the s and early s marked the Constitution permitting the State to control water-related issues, several States had taken steps on water protection.
Environmental Legislations in the 70s The watershed event in the environmental movement was the Stockholm Conference on Human Environment in June The conference made it apparent to all attendees that each nation needed to adopt comprehensive legislation addressing health and safety issues for people, flora and fauna.
The United Nations, organizers of the conference, requested each participant to provide a country report. The findings by the Indian conferees shocked even the most pro-development advocates in India. Stockholm served as the genesis for the series of environmental measures that India passed in the years to come.
It has also been suggested that international events such as Stockholm provided the cover Indian officials needed to implement national environment policy without the vitriolic backlash normally expected from industry.
The year was a landmark in the history of environmental management in India. Prior toenvironmental issues such as sewage disposal, sanitation and public health were dealt with independently by the different Ministries without any co-ordination or realization of the interdependence of the issues.
The NCEPC functioned as an apex advisory body in all matters relating to environmental protection and improvement.
Environmental Legislations in the mid 80s The Tiwari Committee in the 80s which was set up for recommending legislative measures and administrative machinery to strengthen the existing arrangements towards environmental protection, recommended establishing the Department of Environment DOE for dealing with various aspects of environment and ecology.
The Department of Environment, created inperformed an oversight role for the Central Government. DOE did environmental appraisals of development projects, monitored air and water quality, established an environmental information system, promoted research, and coordinated Activities between federal, State and local Governments.
However DOE was criticized, by environmental groups who recognized that with its small political and financial base the agency was weak and symbolic in nature. Environmentalists also recognized that DOE would essentially serve as an advisory body with few enforcement powers.
MoEF was more comprehensive and institutionalized, and had a Union Minister and Minister of State, two political positions answering directly to the Prime Minister. The agency was comprised of 18 divisions, and two independent units, the Ganga Project Directorate and the National Mission on Wastelands Development.
It continued the same functions that DOE originally had, such as monitoring and enforcement, conducting environmental assessments and surveys, but also did promotional work about the environment.
InIndia had 18 monitoring stations for water.
Inthe country had 28 air monitoring stations in seven cities and bythe National Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program had stations in 99 cities. The 80s witnessed the continuing decline in the quality of the environment, together with the Bhopal gas tragedy that had killed more than people.
This spurred the Central Government to adopt stronger environmental policies, to enact fresh legislation and to create, reorganize and expand administrative agencies.
The Act served to back a vast body of subordinate environmental legislation in India. The Atomic Energy Act governs the regulation of nuclear energy and radioactive substances. Under this Act the Central Government is required to prevent radiation hazards, guarantee public safety, safety of workers handling radioactive substances, and ensure the disposal of radioactive wastes.
The Wild Life Protection Act Provided a statutory framework for protecting wild animals, plants and their habitats. The Act adopts a two -pronged conservation strategy:(a) for municipal wastewater collection systems for which the contributory population to the treatment plant is 10 persons or more, the person responsible for the municipal wastewater collection system addresses, as part of a liquid waste management plan, how inflow and infiltration can be reduced, or.
ENVIRONMENT CONSERVATION ACT, No 73 OF 4 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH & SAFETY ACT, No 85 of 5 OTHER LEGISLATION 5 WASTEWATER TREATMENT WORKS REGULATIONS 5 LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS 6 PERMIT FOR PLANT 6 the best appropriate process for such small waste water treatment plants has already been identified as the.
Call for solutions – WSS. The Water Resources Group has brought together case studies from around the world of currently available, replicable and practical solutions for water use transformation.
Sewer mining is a complex option requiring the construction of a local wastewater treatment facility, such as a membrane bio-reactor, to treat the raw wastewater to fit-for-purpose quality, storing and delivering the recycled water to the end-user and managing residuals.
Facts, figures and findings from application of Toxkit microbiotests are reported in a large number of publications, reports and presentations at scientific symposia and workshops. De facto wastewater reuse (unplanned potable reuse) De facto, unacknowledged or unplanned potable reuse refers to a situation where reuse of treated wastewater is, in fact, practiced but is not officially recognized.
For example, a wastewater treatment plant from one city may be discharging effluents to a river which is used as a drinking water .