Graphic way of organizing concepts proposed during brainstorming. Co-op Co-op Cooperative learning method where teams work to prepare and present a topic to the whole class. Emphasis is on student selection of topics, partners, division of labor, methods of presentation, etc. Implementing the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach Cognitive Apprenticeship Cognitive apprenticeships take many forms, but the two key components are social interactions to allow students to work on problems that may be too difficult for them to handle individually, and a focus on real world problems using real-world tools.
Stem Cell Biology and Toxicology 2: This session seeks to address this issue through outlining liver cell heath assays that are fit for purpose, and also outline the development of innovative preclinical test systems, which are both mechanism-based and of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological relevance to DILI in humans.
An iterative, tiered approach with respect to test compounds, test systems, bioanalysis, and mathematical systems analysis has been adopted to evaluate existing models, and develop new models that can provide validated test systems, with respect to the prediction of specific forms of DILI and further elucidation of mechanisms that relate to idiosyncratic DILI.
The approach encompasses completely characterised cell lines, well-defined, and physiologically stable hepatocytes, multi-cell type in vitro models and animal models. Triangulation of human, in vitro and animal data is providing a fundamental understanding of how drugs can harm the liver, and how this relates to the idiosyncratic response.
The objectives of this symposium: Explore and understand the relationship between in vitro assay signals and DILI in vivo, in preclinical test species, and in man; 3. Enhance shared understanding, between academia, pharma, and regulatory agencies, of the value and limitations of new and existing approaches for DILI hazard identification and risk assessment.
Richard Weaver, Servier, Paris, France. Mikael Persson, Astrazeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
A Race against the Clocks Symposium 2: Cardiovascular Toxicology Specialty Section Inhalation and Respiratory Specialty Section Exposure to air pollution has emerged as one of the leading causes of death world-wide.
The World Health Organization WHO estimates that every year exposure to air pollution causes 7 million premature deaths. Extensive epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to polluted air increases the risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases as well as metabolic disorders; however, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have remained elusive.
Air pollution exposure affects pulmonary, cardiac, and vascular functions that follow circadian rhythmicity and increases the risk for pulmonary and cardiovascular events that follow diurnal patterns. Recent studies have shown that exposures to air pollution disrupt pulmonary and cardiovascular molecular circadian clocks, changes circadian blood pressure pattern, and exacerbates the cardiometabolic effects of dyssynchrony misaligned circadian rhythm.
This symposium will highlight this research, identifying the circadian clocks and rhythms as a novel target of air pollution exposure, and will compare the effects of air pollution on circadian rhythmicity with circadian rhythm disruption induced by other stressors such as ischemia, virus infections and diabetes.
The circadian rhythm—defined as physiological, mental, and behavioral changes following a 24 h cycle—controls fundamental physiology, cellular and molecular processes, such as blood pressure, cell division, and DNA-repair that regulate physiological homeostasis.
Circadian rhythmicity is regulated by external signals such as light, temperature, food, or physical activity, called Zeitgeber. However, the normal circadian rhythmicities of these environmental factors are disrupted by our modern lifestyle choices.
For instance, circadian dyssynchrony, the misalignment between the central clock supra chiasmatic nucleus, SCN in the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks by the disturbing the light cycle e. Although the central pacemaker, the SCN has long been considered the primary regulator of circadian rhythm the discovery of clock gene expression, and function in peripheral tissues has challenged this dogma.
Peripheral circadian clocks play a critical role in optimizing the organization of cellular function in the lungs, and are directly involved in metabolic homeostasis and cardiovascular function.
The studies presented in this symposium will illustrate the importance of different peripheral circadian clocks in the development of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, and will provide evidence that exposure to different air pollution disrupt peripheral circadian clocks and circadian rhythm in pulmonary and cardiovascular tissues similar to the circadian misalignment induced by other stressors such as ischemia, virus infections, and diabetes.
The specific presentations of this symposium will show that: In summary, this symposium will provide novel aspects and new mechanistic insights to understand the adverse health effects originating from air pollutant exposure, and our modern lifestyle in association with circadian clock and rhythm disturbances.
Clock Control of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology. Blood Pressure Circadian Rhythm. Fine Particulate Matter PM2. Immunotoxicology Specialty Section Neurotoxicology Specialty Section Interactions between the immune and nervous systems are critical to overall health and wellness.
These interactions are dynamic and vary throughout life, in part due to the age-dependent plasticity of these two complex and dispersed organ systems.
In addition, early in development, the maternal immune system contributes to both normal and abnormal brain development of the offspring. Evidence indicates that exogenous exposures to a variety of pressures such as stress, xenobiotics, including psychoactive substances, and infection can result in neuroimmune dyshomeostasis that is a core component in the etiology of many neurological disorders.
Age and developmental stage are already recognized as key toxicity modifiers due to age-dependent differences in metabolism or barrier, i.
However, perturbation of the integrity of the neuro-immune axis by environmental factors within the context of age is only a recent focus of investigation, and is largely underappreciated by the toxicology community. The goal of this symposium is to highlight the importance of considering age and developmental stage in neuroimmunotoxicology by providing examples of neuroimmune dyshomeostasis caused by pollutants, pathogens, and psychoactive substances when exposures take place at different stages of life.
An Introduction to Neuroimmune Dyshomeostasis: Focus on Autism-Like Neurodevelopmental Disorders.
Neuroimmune Interactions and Drugs of Abuse: Neuroimmunology of the Aged: Interactions with Pathogens Contributing to Neuroimmune Dyshomeostasis. Workshop Sessions Bispecific Molecules: Nonclinical and Clinical Development Challenges Workshop 2: This design was described more than 30 years ago, and it addresses the fact that more than one pathway is often present in many diseases.
New molecular engineering technologies that incorporates high-throughput methods for quantitative analysis are generating alternatives for selection of bispecific antibodies formats that can be grouped as 1 bispecific fragments, 2 bispecific IgG BsIgG3 appended IgG, 4 bispecific fusion proteins, and 5 bispecific antibodies conjugates.Spot On is a period and birth control tracking mobile app available for Android and iOS phones that can help you stay on top of your birth control method and track your cycle.
The app provides customized appointment reminders, and puts birth control and sexual health resources from the experts at Planned Parenthood at your fingertips. Influenza Chapter of Pinkbook: (Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases).
Jun 19, · See Pain Management: Concepts, Evaluation, and Therapeutic Options, a Critical Images slideshow, to help assess pain and establish efficacious treatment plans..
The following anatomical divisions are somewhat arbitrary and overlap in some cases; however, this mode of presentation should prove relevant and accessible by using a . Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods classes, writing the research paper is only part of what is required. Your professor may also require you to give an oral presentation about your study.
Here are some things to think about before you are scheduled to give a presentation. When delivering your presentation, keep in mind the.
Despite the limitations of traditional lectures, many institutions are forced to offer high-enrollment introductory science courses. Many professors who teach these courses feel that lecturing is their only option, and can only dream of what they could accomplish in smaller classes.
Name four or more techniques that cushion the delivery of bad news. starting the message with the best news, compliment the reader or show your appreciation for a past action, explain exactly why the bad news occurred, suggest an alternative/solution to the bad news.